UkrVO logo
tel: +380 44 526 3110
fax: +380 44 526 2147
digital archives
Mykolaiv AO DA
scientific projects
SW calculation
historical image archives
contact us
Main actors in astronomy research in the country  There are 7 Research Institutes in the structure of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NAS of Ukraine), 2 Research Institutes in the structure of the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine (MESYS of Ukraine); 15 astronomical observatories and Departments in the structure of the Universities of the MESYS of Ukraine; 1Private Astronomical Observatory play amain role in the development and teaching Astronomy in Ukraine.
The XPM Catalog  Absolute proper motions of 280 million stars distributed all over the sky without gaps in the magnitude range 10m < V <20m on the basis of combined data from 2MASS and USNO-A2.0 catalogues.
MAO NASU Plate Archive   Digital archive of MAO NAS of Ukraine (GPA) comprises data of about 26 thousands of direct photographic plates, obtained with 14 instruments in 9 observational sites, and more than 2000 digital images of different resolution available via GPA search pages.
Mykolaiv AO Plate Archive   Digital archive of Mykolaiv Aastronomical Observatory (MykAO) includes astronomical data obtained during observations with photo plates and CCD frames. The digitization of the archive is near its completion. Digitized images are available via a web browser and Aladin.
AO LNU Plate Archive   Astronomical Observatory of Lviv National University (AO LNU) is the owner of valuable archive that stores approximately 8 000 of photographic plates from 1939, including nearly 6 000 direct images of the northern sky. The archive is partly digitized and images are available via the joint search pages of AO LNU and MAO NASU.
IRA UTR-2 catalogue of RS   The very-low frequency sky survey of discrete sources has been obtained in the Institute of Radio Astronomy of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences (Kharkov, Ukraine) with the UTR-2 radio telescope at a number of the lowest frequencies used in contemporary radio astronomy within the range from 10 to 25 MHz.
Mykolaiv AO stellar catalogues   27 astrometric stellar catalogues of Mykolaiv Aastronomical Observatory (MykAO) in VOTable format are available for downloading
AO KNU Historic Plate Archive   AO KNU glass collection contains about 20 thousand photographic plates. Historical part of the archive was received during 1898-1946 and now is being digitized.
home conception consortium resources vo links
working groups team founders
  Ukrainian Institutions,Involved into Astronomical Activity  
GRID-based Virtual Observatory VIRGO.UA 
VO VIRGO.UA for cosmology and astrophysics is a segment of VO Infrastructure- a virtual organization, which deals with ensuring the provision of standards for Grid Services for virtual organizations, to ensure reliability functioning of the Ukrainian power grid, Grid training for users and administrators of the Grid sites, as well as the creation of technical conditions UNG for entry into the international grid community...
WDC-Ukraine is a part of World Data Center System of the International Council of Science (ICSU). Among the basic tasks of WDC-Ukraine there is collection, handling and storage of science data and giving access to it for usage both in science research and study process. That include contemporary tutoring technologies and resources of e-libraries and archives; remote access to own information resources for the wide circle of scientists from the universities and science institutions of Ukraine...
Astronomical Net of Ukraine! , - ! - , .. . !
US VAO Data Discovery Portal 
Find datasets from thousands of astronomical collections known to the VO and over wide areas of the sky. This includes important collections from archives around the world. Feedback on your experience with the tool is appreciated -- please send your comments, suggestions, and questions to the VAO Help Desk.
US VAO Cross-Comparison Tool 
Perform fast positional cross-matches between an input table of up to 1 million sources and common astronomical source catalogs, such as 2MASS, SDSS DR7 and USNO-B. Feedback on your experience with the tool is appreciated -- please send your comments, suggestions, and questions to the VAO Help Desk.
VOPlot v1.8 Beta 
VOPlot v1.8Beta includes many enhancements and bug fixes. To name a few v1.8Beta supports multi-grid plots for 2D Scatter-Plot which allows the user to have multiple plots having grid size from 1x1 to 3x3 in a single window. Paginated view is added to see data in tabular format which allows user to navigate systematically. Provision to label Lat/Long lines is also added. Users can now plot a cumulative histogram for all histogram types. VOPlot 1.8Beta shows the metadata of a FITS file instantaneously while the actual loading happens in background. VOPlot v1.8Beta also provides better handling of "faulty data" while parsing an ASCII file.

Ukraine is a large astronomical country in Europe. In total, about twenty five astronomical observatories and departments at various scientific institutions and universities are engaged in astronomical research . As to the qualitative factors, i.e. number of publications in world recognized journals, citation index, research facilities etc., the situation is not so clear. Research at Ukrainian observatories covers a wide range of disciplines. In the case of observational programs, access to modern astronomical facilities is rather limited. As a result in many cases theoretical interpretations of observations conducted at other observatories still prevails. On the other hand, Ukraine has developed its own astronomical infrastructure which is widely used for the international programs.

Secondary Education: Without exaggeration we can say that the system of education and its achievements at this level were the most extraordinary accomplishments of the former Soviet Union, in particular as it concerned education in astronomy. Astronomy was a basic course in secondary schools (34 academic hours in the 10th last grade). Nobody knows the reasons, although it is possible it was an echo of reform, but after Ukraine resumed its independence in 1991, from 1992 until 2000 astronomy was excluded from the secondary education basic curriculum. In 2000, as a result of persistent activity by the Ukrainian Astronomical Association (UAA) and numerous round-tables with representatives of ministry departments, this regretable decision was corrected and astronomy was reinstated into the current 11-year secondary education curriculum. By comparing the status of secondary astronomical education in other countries (e.g., Russia, several countries of Europe) the UAA improved this situation in Ukraine by arguing that knowledge of astronomy will play a unique role for generations to come in the twenty-first century. The present-day status of the astronomical education in secondary schools is as follows:

  • Some elements of the astronomical discipline are included in the standard Natural Science'' curriculum of the 6th - 10th grades.
  • Astronomy is a required course in general (non-specialized) schools (17 academic hours in the last 11th grade) and in lyceums of the natural sciences (34 academic hours in the 11th grade)
  • Astronomy as an elective course is studied in gymnasiums of the humanities.

The Dragomanov Pedagogical University of Kyiv, the Pedagogical University of Mykolaiv, the National University of Uzhgorod have also training teachers of astronomy for secondary schools. Several amatory astronomical clubs are well known not only in Ukraine, but also abroad.

Higher astronomical education: We list below the most important national universities, which have astronomy and space related departments:

All astronomical departments are structural divisions of the physics departments of universities. For this reason as well as the fact that the Ukrainian system of university education in the natural sciences is similar to that of the German system, our students-astronomers receive good training in mathematics and physics.

The system of Bachelor and Master's degrees was initiated in 2002. Every year a total of about 75 university entrants are educated in astronomy. After the 4th year they obtain a Bachelor diploma in Astronomy and on graduating from the university they obtain either a Diploma of Specialist or a Master's Degree in Astrophysics/Astronomy. They study the classical university courses (astrometry, celestial mechanics, planetary physics, solar physics, astrophysics, applied astrophysics, theoretical astrophysics, extragalactic astronomy etc.) as well as special courses on contemporary astronomical research, and have seminars and training in observational astronomy. Results of our monitoring show that 80 % of the entering students finish their education in 5 years; 50 % of students, who finished their education, continue to work in astronomy; 30% of holders of a Specialist's diploma or Master's Degree defend a Candidate Thesis within 3 - 7 years after they graduate.

Scientific degrees: For this reason we are not ready yet to analyze how it works. The system of higher scientific degrees in Ukraine is inherited from the Soviet type system and consists of two levels: Candidate of Science, and Doctor of Science. During recent years the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine approved memorandums about compliance of diplomas of Candidate of Science and PhD with degrees of more then 100 countries of the world. Everybody with a degree up to the Cand. Sci. Diploma may obtain a certificate of compliance for work abroad.

The first level degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand. Sci.) is the analogue of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Medicine adopted in Europe and other countries. The Cand. Sci. degrees unlike the Ph.D. degrees are classified by the related scientific fields (chemistry, biology, pedagogy, economy, politics etc.). The second level degree of Doctor of Science (Dr. Sci.) is also classified by related scientific fields. The Degrees of Cand.Sci. and Dr.Sci. for those who work in astronomy are related to such fields as the Physical-Mathematical Sciences and Technical Sciences.

Since 1992, about 180 astronomers were awarded higher scientific degrees (20% of them Dr. Sci. Degree). Our present-day problem is a brain drain of young scientists: now 30% of those who obtained Cand. Sci. degree work outside of Ukraine.

Scientific Careers: The nomenclature of scientific positions is the following:

  • Junior Staff Scientist (as a rule holders of a Master's degree and those who are starting their scientific activity)
  • Research Staff Scientist (as a rule scientists who defended Cand. Sci. thesis)
  • Senior Staff Scientist (as a rule those who worked successfully for at least five years as Research Staff Scientist)
  • Leading Staff Scientist (as a rule scientists who defended Dr. Sci. Thesis)
  • Principal Staff Scientist (as a rule senior scientists who worked successfully at the position of Leading Staff Scientist).

The nomenclature of faculty positions in higher educational institutions is the same as in many countries: Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Assistant-Professor, Professor.

Unfortunately, for the time being, the Soviet type system of long-term fixed staff positions has been preserved without substantial changes. There is little competition for permanent positions. In fact, young scientist can get a position at an astronomical institution practically for the rest of his or her life. Post doctoral positions are not part of the current structure of scientific positions.

Scientific Titles/Academic Status: The following academic titles/status are used for scientists:

  • Senior Researcher (those who defended Cand. Sci. thesis and worked successfully at least two years at the position of Senior Staff Scientist)
  • Assistant-Professor (those who defended Cand. Sci. thesis and worked at least three years at the position of Assistant-Professor)
  • Professor (as a rule Assistant-Professors who defended the Dr. Sci. Thesis, and Senior Researchers who defended the Dr. Sci. thesis and were a supervisor of at least five Candidates of Science)
  • Corresponding Member of the National Academies of Sciences of Ukraine (senior scientists)
  • Member of the National Academies of Sciences of Ukraine (advanced senior scientists).

   Main actors in astronomy research in the country  

There are 7 Research Institutes in the structure of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NAS of Ukraine), 2 Research Institutes in the structure of the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine (MESYS of Ukraine); 15 astronomical observatories and Departments in the structure of the Universities of the MESYS of Ukraine; 1Private Astronomical Observatory play amain role in the development and teaching Astronomy in Ukraine. They are as follows:

 Research Institutes of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 
 Research Institutes of the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine 

 Private foundations 
 Research facilities 

Ukrainian astronomical institutions possess a wide range of telescopes. Many of them were constructed 30 and more years ago, but are still in use. The main problem is to upgrade these telescopes and equip them with modern detectors and other devices for making observations and obtaining results of sufficient quality.

Largest Telescopes and Networks:

  • The UTR-2, Ukrainian T-shape Radio telescope, (,, is the largest array in the world operated at the decameter wavelengths, extremely low frequencies <25 MHz. This telescope belongs to the Institute of Radio Astronomy of the NASU (S.Ya.Braude Decameter Radio Observatory). It is located near Grakovo village, about 80 km from Kharkiv (northeastern Ukraine). The effective area of the UTR-2 (152,000 sq. m) is more than the effective area of all existing radio astronomical telescopes put together. The resolution is about of 40'x40' at the middle frequency, 16.7 MHz. At present the UTR-2 is under up-grading, namely the development of economic 25-elements antenna-grid from the active dipoles at 8-70 Hz as the first stage to be modified into Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope (
  • A decametric Very Long Baseline Interferometry, VLBI, network URAN was built with the UTR-2 as the basis. Besides UTR-2 it consists of four additional radio telescopes with sizes 5 to 10 times less than that of UTR-2: URAN-1 near Kharkiv (,, URAN-2 near Poltava (, URAN-3 near L'viv (, and URAN-4 near Odesa ( They are electrically phased steering arrays operating from 10 to 30 MHz. Baselines from 40 km to 900 km provide an angular resolution from several minutes to one second of arc. The angular resolution of 1 arcsec corresponds to the fundamental limit imposed by scattering at these frequencies in the interstellar medium. These network telescopes also belong to the Institute of Radio Astronomy of the NASU.
  • The 70-meter dish radio telescope RT-70 is a highly efficient fully tracking instrument located near Evpatoria in Crimea. Its effective area is of 2500 sq. m and its beam width is 2.5 arcmin at the 5-cm radio wave length. There are only 10 antennas of such size in the world. This telescope is being up-graded to provide astronomical research at wavelengths 92, 18.6, and 1.35 cm for future work in the European VLBI network (EVN). This antenna belongs to the National Space Agency of Ukraine, NSAU (, ).
  • The RT-22 is a radio telescope () operating at mm and cm radio wavelengths located in Simeiz, Crimea. It has a Cassegrain and prime focus feed system on an azimuth-elevation mount and its characteristics are: diameter 22 m, surface tolerance (root mean square) 0.25 mm, wavelength limit 2 mm, and focal length 9.525 m. RT-22 is included in VLBI astrophysical and geodetic projects with the European and USA networks. This instrument belongs to the SRI Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the MESU.
  • The Academician Shajn 2.6-meter reflector () is the largest optical telescope in Ukraine. The telescope was built in 1961. Its equatorial mount supports a 2.6-m parabolic primary with several optical systems: primary (F/4 and with a focal reducer F/2.6), Cassegrain (f/16), Nasmith (f/16), and two f/40 Coude foci, direct and bent.
  • 2-meter ZEISS telescope at the Peak Terskol, North Caucasus, Russia (). It belongs to the ICAMER.

Moderate-size Telescopes.

  • AZT-11 (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) is 1.25-m Ritchey-Cretien reflector, built 1981. Focus length is 16 m, available foci are Main Cassegrain and Auxiliary Cassegrain. An offset photoelectric auto guider is provided for the Main focus. A TV guider with a 30-cm refractor and a 40 arcmin field-of-view also is available. Objects brighter then 15 mag can be resolved. A computer based control system provides automated pointing with 15 arcsec precision and other services, i.e. fine tracking of fast moving objects (comets, asteroids), access to object catalogues, and dome-telescope synchronization.
  • The Tower Solar Telescope TST-1 (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory A 120 cm coelostat and a 90 cm spherical primary mirror feed the telescope to provide f/56 or f/78 Cassegrain foci equipped with spectrographs.
  • ACU-5 (Main Astronomical Observatory of the NASU,\_w1.html) consists of a 440-mm coelostat and an additional mirror, 440/17500-mm main mirror and 200-mm Cassegrain mirror system with a 60-m equivalent focal length. The spectrograph camera and collimator mirrors are made out of one single block of glass of 500/7000-mm, the grating has a ruled area of 140x150 mm with 600 lines per mm.
  • Solar ACU-26 telescope (MAO NASU,\_w2.html) was constructed at the Peak Terskol in 1989. The diameter of the main spherical mirror is 650 mm with a focal length of 17750 mm. The telescope is equipped with a 5-camera spectrograph permitting simultaneous observations in five spectral regions. The diameter of the collimator and cameras is 300 mm, the focal length 8000 mm. The 250 mm x 200 mm grating, 600 lines/mm, permits dispersion in fourth order of 21.9 mm/nm at 395.0 nm and 33.0 mm/nm at 650.0 nm.
  • Two Satellite Laser Ranging telescopes (SLR) at MAO NASU and at Crimean Laser Observatory in Katsiveli, Crimea, are the 100-cm telescopes with Ritchey-Cretien and Coude systems on an English mounting. The equivalent focal length of Ritchey-Cretien system is 13.3 m and of the Coude system is 36.5 m. A CCD-camera with 256 x 256 pixels allows positional and photometric observations. A satellite ranging laser is mounted at the Coude focus. The both SLRs are the members of a SLR world network and participate in the majority of international programs observing satellites.
  • The gamma ray telescope GT-48 (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) is designed for searching and investigating sources of very high energy (VHE) gamma radiation (~1012 eV) by measuring Cherenkov flashes in the Earth atmosphere on moonless nights. The installation GT--48 consist of two independent alt-azimuth arrays 20 m apart. Each array consists of six 1.2-m telescopes with a common focus. Three of them are designed for detection of short ultraviolet Cherenkov radiation initiated by cosmic radiation, gamma-rays as well as charged particles, and have solar blind photomultipliers in their focal planes. The other 3 telescopes image the flashes with 37 photomultipliers (imaging camera).
  • The 1.24m Ritchey-Cretien reflector (Simeiz, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory), diameter of the second mirror is 0.35. Focus length is 14.5 m. English mounting (EM-2). For guiding a synchronous driving gear is used with quartz stabilizator.

Small Telescopes.

Small-size telescopes are listed below:

  • Main Astronomical Observatory NASU AZT-2 (80cm), GPS station (1m), Axial Meridian Circle, Twin astrograph (0.7 m);
  • Crimean Astrophysical Observatory AZT (0.5 m), MTM-500 (0.5 m), AZT-8 (0.7 m);
  • Astronomical Observatory, Shevchenko National University of Kyiv AZT-3 (40cm), Horizontal Solar Telescope (0.8m) ;
  • Astronomical Observatory I.I. Mechnikov National University of Odesa 1 m and 0.6 m telescopes, two 0.8 m telescopes, two 0.5 m telescopes;
  • Institute of Astronomy V.N. Karazin National University of Kharkiv AZT-8 (0.7 m);
  • Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory Axial Meridian Circle, Multi-Channel Telescope ;
  • Astronomical Observatory I.Franko National University of Lviv AZT-14 (0.8 m), SRL.


    NGO Scientific Astronomical Societies:
  • Ukrainian Astronomical Association (UAA)
  • Ukrainian Society for Gravity, Relativistic Astrophysics, and Cosmology
  • Odessa Astronomical Society
  • Planetariums: 7 planetariums operate in Ukraine, namely in Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kyiv, Lviv, Odessa, Uman.
UkrVO logo